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Language

Page history last edited by Mace 6 months, 3 weeks ago


 

Introduction

 The salthan language is also known as  kadarad (literaly "knowledge talk") or Ihathenyelsany (words of the people), and has many dialects. The version of the language on this site is the most common dialect.

 

Pronouncing the Sounds

 

Written Salthan language is made up of 14 consonants and 6 vowels. Written Salthan is a flowing script where each letter attaches with a line to the next letter in a single word. 

 

An alternate way of writing Salthan is using roman alphabet, called "romanized Salthan" which will be used throughout this guide. Salthan language does not possess upper and lower case character as in English, however uppercase may be used to start begining of sentences and for proper names. 

 

Salthan is read from left to right, top to bottom.

 

Salthan alphabet with IPA pronunciations

 

Vowel symbols are attached to the previous letter, (usually a consonant, but sometimes because of affixing it is another vowel)

 

The vowels are pronounced as follows:

Salthan Romanized IPA Pronounced Salthan Romanized IPA Pronounced
  a ɑ

'ah' as in ma

 
o o oh as in mow
  e ɛ 'eh' as  in pet.   u u 'oo' as in pool
  i i

'ee' as  in keep.

 
ai / y ɑI like english word 'eye'

 

The Consonants are:

gˈas g in gorilla
r  r in rat

s  s in sleep

t  t in table

ʃ  sh  in sheep
ʧ ch in chair
θ th

h h in health

d d in dance

k k in 

l l in laugh

n n in no

 

 

 

The Agglutinative language

 

Salthan is a highly agglutinative language, meaning the words are mostly made up of a base affixes to modify the word. 

 

In most if not all cases an adjective is used like an affix, attached to the word it modifies. An affix always modifies the thing it is connected to at its right.

 

Word Order

 

Word order is marked in a way that no matter which way the words arranged it means the same, by use of marking affixes. However, generally the order of verb subject object is considered the "more correct" form.

The phrase "kololanys dauesila chisana", which means I (male) saw the man is the same as "kololanys chisana dauEsila", chisana kololanys dauesila" or "dauesila kololanys chisana" etc.

 

In cases when an object is handled between two people, the transitive form "fol-" is used.  For example, "The man gave the stick to his dog" would be in Salthan "Kaletes Dasana chiukasan foluelkakat" 

 

Nouns

 

Gender

Gender is shown through the ending affix of -a for male or -i for female. Objects do not have gender, and only nouns convey gender or quantity (thus you do not need to have to match agreement between verbs and nouns like in some languages).

 

Quantity

To specify there are more than one of an object add the -nai affix to the end of the nous,. a number can also be attached before this affix to specify the exact amount. [To do: Add a few examples of numbers here]. A note that in Salthan numbers are a base-5 system. 

 

Pronouns

Pronouns are omitted unless necessary for clarity. The following chart shows how pronouns are constructed.

 

"Include listener" and "listener gender" is only used for 1st person plural (we)

 

 

Possessives

Possessive affixes come in two types, depending on the emphasis of the word in the sentence. The thing that is the emphasis will always be on the right side of the marker. 

 

 "-le-" is used when the word in the sentence is about the thing that is being possessed, which is on the right of the marker, so for example "sanaleseka" - "the man's food" would be used in a sentence like "sekas daesila chisanaleseka", "I ate the man's food" since the subject of the sentence is about the food. Conversely "-el-" is for when the thing possessing something is the emphasis, so the word in the previous example would be changed to "sekalesana", and alone would have the same meaning but inserted into the previous example sentence "sekas daesila chisekalesana" would mean instead "I ate the man who had food" a much different meaning! 

 

esilaleteha - It is mine

kiel datos - Is it yours?

|akis dasan - It's not his.

 

Questions

Questions always start with the prefix "ki-". Some example questions:

kiteha           What (thing)?

kalkis           What did (you) do?

ikis               What are (you) doing?

nekis           What will (you) do?

kikaine         When?

kigak            Why?

kirathe          Where?

kisana           Who?

kidosa          How much (money)?

kiny               How many?

 

Adjectives

 

Adjetives are simply affixes added just before (to the left of) the noun they are modifying.

Shusygadache - The red ball

usergkesh - The small house.

 

Adverbs

Salthan adverbs work the same as adjectives. For example, Instead of saying "She sings beautifully" it would be rather rendered as 

salchys daesani, literally good-sing her.

 

Emphisis

To increase or decrease an adjetive or adverb you use the u- or gi- prefix respectively. This prefix is stacked to decrease or increase it further

The bowl is very small.  uulase 
The bowl is small  ulase 
The bowl is big  gilase 
He is very loud gigilasesana 

 

 

Telling Time

Quantity of units of time is done in the same way as quantity of nouns.

 

Minutes

ukaline - One minute

ukalinehasany - five Minutes

 

Hours

kaline - Hour, One Hour

kalineshiny - Two Hours

kalinethany - Three Hours

 

Days

shikalrya - Day before yesterday

kalrya - Yesterday

irya - Today

nerya - Tomarrow

seknerya - Day after tomarrow

 

Weeks

(Note: These are weeks in the Salthan calander, which are made up of 5 days.) 

shikalhasrya - The week before last

kalhasrya - last week

ihasrya - this week

shinehasrya - next week

seknehasrya - The week after next

 

Months

Kalgihasrya - Last month

igihasrya - This month

negihasrya - Next month

 

Years

kaltya - Last year

itya - This year

netya - Next year

 

Verbs

Verbs always end with -s affix. Verbs are always active with the person doing the verb is the subject. For example, there are no verb for "to get" instead, this is 'expressed with the verb for to give/trade ("etes") and arranging who is shown as giving or receiving. the object and subject modifiers are also used with this verb to modify the transitive object, to show who is giving what. . 

 

I gave him the ball  Kaletes daesila chisana foldadachi  
He gave me the ball  Kaletes daesila chisana folchidachi   
I gave him the book for the ball  Kaletes daesila chisana foldahathnai foldchidachi  
He took the ball from me (by force) Kalketes dasana chiesila folchidachi  

 

Time Tenses

Past (kal-), present (i-) and future (ne-) tenses are added as prefixes to modify the verb, though present tenses are rarely used and assumed the default if there are no tense markers. Present modifiers may be used though for emphasis. 

 

kalsekas daes - I ate

(i)sekas daes - I'm eating. 

nesekas daes - I will eat

 

u- and gi- emphisis modifiers can be used to denote how recent/soon an action was/will be.

 

ukalsekas daes - I just ate

gikalsekas daes - I ate long ago

unesekas daes - I will eat soon

ginesekas daes - I will eat in a long while

 

Negetives

The affix |a- is added to a verb, adjetive or adverb to modify it. Some adjetives modify to the opposite, for example shu is light, and !ashu for dark. 

 

Yes and No

The basic words for yes and no are sseth and |a respectively.

 

Kiladeseka?  Are you hungry? 
Seth, ladesseka  Yes, I am hungry 
|a, |aladesseka  No, I am not hungry 

 

When answering a negative, the words contrary to what is in English.  

Ki|aladeseka?  Are you not hungry? 
Seth, ladesseka  No, I am hungry 
|a, |aladesseka  Yes, I am not hungry 

 

 

If/But then statements

The word gak is used to link cause and effect statements., and the reversed form kag is used when the cause and effect are switched in the statement, basically equivalent to the English word "therefore". 

 

Kas kag is  I think, therefore I am 
ichais  gak gilseles I'm singing because I'm happy 

 

Nesting Statements

The Fol marker is used to denote when a object is the next sentence. 

 

Olanais daes chifol olanais datos chisana  I*'m watching you watch him. 
   

 

 

Common Phrases

 

  Portions inside parenthesis () on the salthan side are optional and may be omitted.

 

Small Talk  
Hello Friend (to male) Bika esha
Hello Friend (to female) Bika eshi
Good Morning salukalgirel
Good Afternoon salkalkaline
How are you?  kisal tosa
I am good, thank you  salas (daesil) Tas datosa
And you?  yl tosa
not bad, thank you ñaekta (daesil),  Tas datosa
Long time no see gikalolanys daesila chitosa
Goodbye  salakanas 
Where are you from?  kikalrathe tos 
I am from Braydon  Kalrathes (daesil) chidraydon  
I am from Ten Terak  Kalrathes (daesil) chitenterak 
My name is Mr. Smith  daesilelnesak chisnith 
What time is it?  kiikaline 
Please  netas
Sorry/Excuse Me gitas 
How much is this? 

kidokany

That is too expensive  dokagiany
Thank you very much  tasany tosa 
Where is the toilet? kirathe thede
Who is it? / Who are you? Kisana / Kisana Tosa
What is that?  Kitaha 
When was that?

kikalkaline 

When will that happen? 

kinekailine 

Please, Come in (speaker is male, to a male person)

nenaudes dadatosa tases(il)a

Weather  
It is Sunny Irirelgiserel ("The sun is hot") or Rels dagiserel ("The sun is heating")
it is Rainning Iushersshas
It is cloudy Isudshas
Language Difficulties  
Do you speak HTL (human trade language) kidaradas datos chihunanhatheny
Yes, I speak a little Kahathany (Salthan) seth, darades daesil chiukahathany
No, I don't understand Kahatheny ña, ñakas (daesil) chikahatheny
I don’t speak Salthan nadarad (daesil) chikahatheny
Please speak slower unenodarads datosa
Emergancy  
Fire! 

girel

Help!  tutas
Stop!  |anena
Police! kakdare!
Look out! olanyschu (Lit, basicly "Hey! look!")
Signs  
Men (toilets/changing rooms) sanany
Woman (toilets/changing rooms) saniny
Toilet / restroom Thede / Thedekesh
Entrance udesnenksy
Exit gidesnensky
Open ilita 
Closed ithata 
Caution / Slow (Mostly traffic signs) Unenos! (lit. "go slowly") 
Danger! Eknachos! (Lit. "You may die!")
Employees must wash hands before returning to work kalsilas nekeshs dadashssanalehasanai (lit. "before wash, later work employees' hands")
Ear Protection required beyond this point Kakels railanai kalnenas ihathe (lit. "protect ears before going past here")
Head protection required beyond this point kakels Gildar kalenenas ihathe
Wear Eye protection rokes chikakelolanaie
No parking |adarking / |agikal|anenas
Do not enter |aksy
Stop |anenas
Yeild Ulksai
Slow uneneo
No thru road |aunegides ksy 
No left turn |adela
No right turn |akela
Will return neinenasi
Holidays  
Merry Christmas salkrisnas
Happy New Year salukaltya
'Useful Phrases'  
My hovercraft is full of eels esilalegitedhofercraft shasdeknai
I'm a looser, so why don't you kill me?

ne|aihases ki|aichos datos chies? 

I think, therefore I am Ies gak kas daes
The mediator between knowledge and action is the heart. rigas chika chiis dasel
At the Restaurant  
Menu dashinaie / dashinaisekanaie
Drink Menu dashinaishasesenaie
Soft Drinks rutshasesenai
Appetizers
ukalsekanai
Entrees Gisekanai

 

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